My career versus the crisis

I still need to catch up with blog posts. Even though this post is no longer relevant because I started with a new job in September 2015, I felt I still had to share my thoughts on career prospects from before that month, around May 2015.

When I started the fourth year of high school, the head teacher gave all students an inspiring speech. He showed a photo of a mountain and told us we were close to making it to the summit. “When you reach the summit, you will see taller mountains to be climbed in the distance”, he said. Those mountains were tough to ascend for me at times. During my first years of higher education, I almost got buried by an avalanche and was close to abandoning the climb. Someone even told me I would not be able to climb the most challenging mountain in sight. With my perseverance I did manage to complete the ascent of that mountain after all in August 2012. I found a postgraduate degree in Public Administration on the summit there.

From the top, I could see Career Mountain, which became my new goal. I didn’t expect it to be easy, but after my past achievements I was confident I could climb it without too much difficulty. While making my way to the mountain’s base, I was surprised to find myself descending towards Crisis Valley instead, where the Lost Generation languishes. Their weeping and gnashing of teeth grows louder as time passes on.

I’m disappointed and angry with my current career development. It’s basically non-existent. During my studies I got a part time job at OGD, an IT company. Since I graduated, I’m still employed by them on a flexible contract to do temporary work in IT. Since 2012 I still work as a service desk agent or assistant system administrator, because opportunities to get a job more suitable to my level of education didn’t work out. I might have gotten an annual contract for the work I currently do if I hadn’t been so optimistic about my chances of finding more interesting work elsewhere. I didn’t negotiate well with Human Resources either. But I want to emphasize that I’m actually very grateful to them. On their education budget, I acquired certifications in ITIL and PRINCE2. Without them, I would have had more difficulty in finding work and wouldn’t have gained valuable experience.

Each time I look at LinkedIn and see how other people I know from university did manage to land good jobs, I turn green with envy. When read in Intermediair, a Dutch magazine dedicated to career-building, how much people with specific jobs make or how quickly they found their job after graduating, I grow very jealous. Both activities are guaranteed to devastate my optimism and state of mind for one day.

I experience a complex, contradictory collection of emotions. I feel inferior and worthless compared to others who do have an annual contract while I have to suffer with the uncertainty of a flexible contract. On the other hand I feel superior to them when I scrutinize their profiles on LinkedIn. When I see spelling errors or notice how they landed great jobs with dubious, unrelated degrees like language studies and such, I content myself with the thought that they must be idiots who do not deserve such jobs.

Fortunately, my rational side never allows the emotional side to take over. Even though it’s hard and confrontational, I continue to read LinkedIn profiles of others to determine how I could learn from their accomplishments. Sometimes I ask them for advice. I use my network and request people I know if they can help me with circulating my resume, which is reasonably successful so far. Reflecting on my performance with job applications, I’ve determined that my application letters are good, but passing assessments with intelligence tests can be a problem. My greatest weakness is that I’m not convincing enough during job interviews. With some trial and error I’ve already gotten better at them, but I want to improve it further with the help of several Human Resources professionals I can count as friends.

However, improving my job hunting skills is harder than it seems. Because I’ve had no alternative other than doing temporary work in IT since I graduated in 2012, I’ve now reached a point where I’m no longer eligible for traineeships. In their desire for blank slates, recruiters demand that you have no more than a few years of work experience and that you are a recent graduate. Neither apply to me anymore, and increasingly my job applications are being rejected based on this argument. I argue that my work experience should not be considered because it’s all temporary work rather than a real job, no different from a part time job for students. The recruiters don’t care about my arguments, and why should they if they can choose from a steady supply of recent graduates? At the same time, my experience gained with temporary work is often not sufficient when I apply for jobs which are not traineeships and do require relevant experience. It’s a Catch-22.

The only viable way to escape from this no-win situation is to forget about landing a traineeship and gain more relevant experience. I’ve made important strides in this regard: I’ve acquired certifications in ITIL and PRINCE2, with the ambition to get a Lean Six Sigma certificate in the future. As the Secretary of the Board for the South Holland branch of Dutch Green party I’ve gained experience with organizing events. I’ve continued to contribute plenty of content to the English Wikipedia. All these activities illustrate my skills, but will it be enough to convince the recruiters?

Some have told me it is best to shut up about my difficulties in the job market. But I’m done with keeping quiet, I want to tell the truth. We’re all human and every person has to deal with adversity in life. If you are a recruiter and conclude I’m unworthy of employment at your company because I still haven’t found a decent job since I graduated in 2012, I don’t want to work for your company in the first place. There are many people like me, maybe even worse off because they chose to study for degrees like Art History, who have a hard time in the job market. Don’t discard them because they were forced to do irrelevant temporary work due to the crisis. They do not need to be treated differently from starters, even if they are approaching their thirties and have more work experience. In fact, all the difficulty they face in the job market has probably made them more resilient than those people who come fresh out of university and manage to find a job within a month or two.

There is only one certainty for me, that I will persevere in my search for a real job. I’ve been telling this myself for almost three years now, but what good will pessimism do? Always keep thinking positively. It’s understandable I’m envious of colleagues with a better job and contract, but one of those is physically handicapped and another lost his girlfriend to cancer. In that perspective I should be content with my life, everything is relative.

Completed the Rotterdam Marathon of 2015

In 4 hours and 48 minutes, on Sunday 12 April. On one hand I’m satisfied that I’ve managed to attain this achievement, certainly after an injury prevented me from participating in 2014. On the other hand I’m disappointed with my time.

Because I was not unemployed or partially employed during the first months in 2015, I had to practice in the evening. Because it can be hard to see where you place your feet in the darkness I didn’t run on my bare feet like in 2014. After a few weeks of practice I decided to run barefoot during daylight on a Saturday. This turned out to be a bad decision because my feet were covered with blisters after 20 kilometers. Without practice my feet had become unaccustomed to barefoot running, obviously. When my feet had recovered, I decided to compromise: I would run the marathon on Xeroshoes Amuri Z-Trek minimalist sandals.

I had also tried the Amuri Cloud model during practice. A 20 kilometer run went fine, but I felt the strap connecting to the sole between the big toe and long toe was uncomfortable because it could cause to much friction if the straps were adjusted poorly. Adjusting the straps also required too much stops during the start of the run. The Amuri Z-Trek model turned out to be easier to adjust and served me well when I ran shorter distances with them, like 10 kilometers.

However, during the marathon itself it became clear that the strap of the Amuri Z-Trek sandals located just above the toes was causing too much friction as well. No amount of sports tape could prevent it, as that was pulled loose by the friction too. After approximately thirty kilometers I had to go to a first aid station to fix the bleeding.

Of course I’m very disappointed with XeroShoes. After some communication with the retailer the conclusion was that a smaller size would have helped, even though I had measured my size correctly. I don’t want to use sweaty shoes and insist on using minimalist sandals, but Xeroshoes is hard. Maybe I’ll try a smaller size of the Z-Trek model in the future, but since I completed the Rotterdam Marathon I can count my runs on one hand. And for those runs I used shoes. Because the Xeroshoes failed me I’ve been so demotivated that I almost gave up running completely.

As for the marathon itself, I ran the first 30 kilometers in 2 hours and 52 minutes. After that it went downhill. My ego had a hard time seeing much older men and short women overtaking me. I think I was more fit in 2014 as I had gotten more practice then. For 2015 I was naive to follow a schedule which advocated that shorter practice runs (less than 30 kilometers) could prepare the complete marathon. On top of that I didn’t follow it accurately.

Maybe I will run another marathon in the future to achieve a better time. Coincidentally the 2016 Rotterdam Marathon takes place today, but I’m volunteering as a traffic controller. I want to return the favor to the volunteers who handed me water and patched up my feet. To the English speaking participant (number 16069) who encouraged me when my spirits were low after the 30 kilometer point. To the public which cheered the runners to push on. The marathon makes us experience an amazing sense of community in Rotterdam, an experience which I want to contribute too.

This Changes Everything

Naomi Klein should be considered one of the champions of the Green movement. Her book This Changes Everything is excellent in exposing the harsh truth that we are on a collision course with our planet’s climate.

This book is very depressing. And rightly so: in most chapters we are told how we exploit our planet and are addicted to fossil fuel. We place profit above conserving our environment and wage war on the climate in the process. Unbridled capitalism is the culprit. We always want more and more wealth and luxury and are incapable of restraint, to be satisfied with less. Of course there is a positive message as well about change, the rise of a movement which aims to save the climate.

But even so, I’m still pessimistic. As the secretary of GroenLinks (the Dutch Green Party) in South Holland, a few of my fellow board members always eat meat when we have dinner before our meetings. I’ve noticed snacks with meat being served at events organized by our party. If even these people don’t understand the impact of cattle rearing on our climate, how will the average Joe ever understand? It’s the same with air travel.

I read the book while I was on a winter sports holiday in Austria with my family. I never really liked winter sports because of the mass tourism aspects of it, but as I read the book I realized it was harmful to our climate as well. Huge amounts of trees need to be cleared from mountain slopes to make ski slopes. All those lifts, piste caterpillars and snow guns require a lot of fossil fuels. Of course there are much more examples.

Even though I’m observing our collective excesses, I’m to blame as well. That is why I want to improve on myself, I want to drastically decrease the pressure I exert on the climate. Even though I eat almost no meat anymore, I consider going completely vegan. If possible I will never use aircraft which run on fossil fuel anymore and use the train and other public transport instead. The latter might not be possible because I have to compromise with my girlfriend Stephanie. Nor does she want to sell her car, but at least we can switch to an electric car. I want to make our next house energy neutral.

Thesis finally published in a scientific peer-reviewed journal

I thought the day would never come, but on 26 March 2015 my modified master thesis was finally published in Government Information Quarterly, a peer-reviewed scientific journal. Two and half years after I submitted it for my graduation as MSc in Public Administration in August 2012.

After graduating I used several months to rewrite the thesis as a publishable article together with my thesis supervisor dr. Dimiter Toshkov, who is also the co-author. We then submitted to the Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. This is a very prestigious journal so we were not surprised it was rejected for publication, but we benefited from the feedback of the reviewers. We then resubmitted to Government Information Quarterly.

The wheels of academic publishing are known to turn very slowly, but the period of the time we had to wait for a verdict was exceptional: more than half a year if I remember correctly. After asking for information it turned out that our paper had gotten lost in the process. Fortunately, it was eventually accepted for publication after some minor modifications. I wish the process had been faster so I could have taken advantage from mentioning a scientific publication on my CV more soon.

Reflecting on it all, I’m very proud we managed to get this published. There aren’t many graduate students who get to do so. I learned R and the required statistical knowledge relatively easily, even though I used to have an aversion of statistics in the past.

The perfectionist inside my head is still slightly dissatisfied, telling me that I could have given even more thought to the subject and method of my research. That it would have been even better with more survey responses. The layout could have better. But the bottom line is that a temperate sense of satisfaction triumphs over my hot-headed perfectionism. Ten years ago, when I was an academic failure with serious procrastination issues, this achievement would have been but a dream.

It’s a pity the article is not Open Access, but behind the publisher’s paywall. Fortunately, you can find my own pre-print on my website. The source files for LaTeX and R are attached to the document for those who a curious about how the statistical analysis was performed with R and how the paper’s layout was done with LaTeX.

Regarding LaTeX, I’d like to point out two issues. Documents with two or more columns are too difficult. You need some specific commands to make sure that lines on both columns match vertically. Placement of figures becomes more complicated too, even though I’ve mostly managed with workarounds. If I would write my article again, I would take a serious look at Scribus, a free software desktop publishing application. Unlike LaTeX it follows the “what you see is what you get” principle. It seems to make several things much easier to do than LaTeX.

A right-wing and left-wing plan for dealing with boat refugees

Due the increasing amount of boat refugees coming to the European Union as of late, the the People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) proposed on 22 March this year that we completely close the outer borders of the EU for asylum seekers. According to them asylum seekers are costly for us, they facilitate human trafficking and it’s hard to separate legit refugees from economic migrants and terrorists. The massive influx of refugees would cause societal breakdown in the EU. Refugees should be housed in their own region and be able to build a new life there, possibly with aid from the EU.

While I am sympathetic to some of the reasoning of the proposal, it lacks solidarity and is short-sighted. In some cases regional capacity for hosting refugees is already stressed to the limit. Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan hosted respectively 1,59 million, 1,15 million and 654.100 refugees according to the UNHCR Global Trends report on forced displacement in 2014. Lebanon is even the country with the largest amount of refugees compared to its own population in the world, with 232 refugees per 1.000 inhabitants. That’s insane and makes it obvious to me that our sense of solidarity obliges us to help out with hosting Syrian refugees. During the debate in the House of Representatives about the plan, it was claimed that even 95% of refugees are already hosted in their own region. Also, legal experts were quick to point out that the VVD’s plan would violate international treaties, making it difficult to implement. It was clear that except for the right-wing Party for Freedom (PVV), there was no support for the plan.

My own party GroenLinks, the Dutch Green Party, responded with an alternative proposal. It boils down to five points: preventing that more refugees drown, allowing refugees to apply for asylum while outside the EU, improve facilities to house refugees in their own region, better distribution of refugees within the EU and structural solutions for the refugee problem.

The alternative plan of my own political party sounds good, but it refuses to acknowledge the existence of economic migration. And while they might not form a significant part of the refugees, economic migrants do exist. On several news reports I’ve seen refugees from Pakistan. Yes, there’s a war in North-West Pakistan, but millions of Pakistanis are apparently able to lead relatively peaceful lives in other regions of their country. I think Pakistan should be able to help it’s own internal refugees, possibly with international aid.

Also consider that the public housing sector in the Netherlands can’t cope with the demand exerted by all the refugees which are entitled to housing. They practically receive housing for free because they are likely to live on welfare. They are given precedence over the Dutch citizens who are on the waiting list for public housing. The obvious reason refugees seek asylum in Western Europe is that they are entitled to much more aid than in neighboring states in their region. While I agree that we should spend more on foreign aid for refugees, I think we should make our public services for asylum seekers more sober simultaneously. I don’t feel the plan of GroenLinks addresses these issues sufficiently.

I totally agree that we should be generous to refugees from Syria. But they can be given temporary asylum in order to force their return when the Syrian Civil War is over. They can be housed in more sober asylum centers or intermodal container housing instead of public housing.

First New Year’s dive ever

On 1 January this year I participated in a New Year’s dive for the first time ever. I had already been inspired in 2012 to do this. Ideally I wanted to go to the beach of Scheveningen near The Hague, where the largest event was organized for 10.000 people. Because I live in Rotterdam, I decided to go to a local event organized at the Kralingse Plas, a large lake north of Rotterdam’s center.

In total there were probably thirty people who got in the water and an equal amount of people who preferred to stay warm. It was well organized by the local ice skating club, they even had a diver in the water for safety. It should be noted that according to the science, the activity is not a problem for the average healthy person. However, people with heart or respiratory diseases might not take well to it. Apart from risks, science says it can actually make you feel better if you swim in such cold water regularly.

My experience was positive. When the signal was given after a countdown, the whole group ran into the water. Surprisingly, the water did not feel much colder than when I swam in a different lake during a much warmer day in the autumn. While others just waded through the water and quickly got out, I took the opportunity to swim for a minute or so. When I got out, I felt a very comforting rush of warmth through my body to compensate for the shock of the cold water. I’m not sure what the water temperature in the Kralingse Plas was, but the seawater at Schevening was 7 ℃. Because it’s a lake I expected the temperature was slightly lower.

I liked doing this and will do it again next year. If we have found a home in The Hague then, I can actually join the fun at the beach of Scheveningen. Ideally I’d like to do it more regularly than just New Year’s Day, which would be an option if I’d live closer to a beach or lake.

The call for a ban on consumer fireworks

Let’s take a look at some statistics for eye injuries sustained during the New Year celebrations on 31 December 2014 and 1 January 2015 in the Netherlands.

  • Eight people had one eye blinded by fireworks, one person had both eyes blinded.
  • A total of 206 people got injured in the eye and for 93 of these the damage was permanent.
  • For 111 people, the injuries were caused by fireworks set off by someone else.

This time, the allowed time for setting off fireworks was halved, but the amount of people with eye injuries decreased by merely 17%. Innocent bystanders constitute the majority of the injured with 54%. For how long does this mutilation need to continue before we realize that consumer fireworks are too dangerous?

One of the apologists of the fireworks sellers says that bystanders should remain inside when the fireworks are set off or use safety goggles when they venture outside. After being confronted with these statistics I will definitely stay inside. But isn’t it strange that bystanders need to take security measures like buying safety goggles? Should it not be the responsibility of those who set off fireworks to ensure safety?

Year after year it turns out that not everyone wants to buy safety goggles and that consumers can’t handle fireworks safely. It’s evident why Dutch ophthalmologists plead for a ban on consumer fireworks. Just like my political party, GroenLinks. It seems like the movement to ban consumer fireworks is gaining strength: 56% of the Dutch people favor such a ban. I hope a ban becomes reality sooner rather later, before hundreds more have their eyes mangled by fireworks in the years ahead.

Stop operating artificial ice skating rinks

Last year in October it was revealed that artificial ice skating rinks in the Netherlands depend on government subsidies for their survival. Most of the sixteen ice rinks with a 400 meter track in our country would go bankrupt without subsidies. The small amount of ice rinks which do not receive subsidies do receive millions of public funding for new construction or renovations. Electricity used to create and cool the ice floor is responsible for the majority of their operating costs.

For centuries we were restricted to outdoor ice skating when a cold winter allowed it. The first artificial ice rink in the Netherlands (and the third in the world) which was longer than 400 meters was built only 54 years ago in 1961, the Jaap Edenbaan in Amsterdam. That operating these venues would consume large amounts of electricity and thus fossil fuels was second to our desire for luxury and convenience. In these times of climate change, can we still afford to use artificial ice rinks?

My girlfriend who frequents the Uithof ice rink in the Hague during the ice skating season will be cross with me for writing this, but I think they are an unnecessary luxury which we cannot afford. Especially now that our winters have become so mild due to global warming they consume far too much energy. To provide some figures, according to the municipality of Delft the indoor artificial ice rink in Delft consumes 110.000 kWh in one ice skating season. The average household in the Netherlands consumes 3.500 kWh in a year. So, the electricity used by the ice rink equals that of 31,4 households.

Interestingly, the municipality of Delft argues that the ice rink is CO2 neutral because the ice rink finances three wind turbines which generate 500 MWh a year. This argument seems compelling, but does not convince me: that green energy could have been used for more essential things like lighting in buildings. Of course, the average oil refinery in Rotterdam’s port would use more electricity than an ice rink (I couldn’t find sources for this), but that is no excuse. It is essential that we start saving energy to fight climate change, so everything which consumes large amounts of electricity should be scrutinized, especially those things which are luxuries.

At the very least local governments should stop subsidizing ice rinks. They are practically financing climate change. If the public does not want to pay for the real operating costs of ice rinks and some would go bankrupt, so be it. There are plenty of other sports which are not so energy intensive. If you still want to go ice skating in the winter, take a train to go to the Weißensee in Austria or something.

Visited Rome in September 2014

After my last visit in June 2008, I wished to visit Rome a second time to see more of this city and its surroundings. My first visit lasted merely two days, yet allowed me to see the majority of the most popular attractions. On this second visit, I wanted to use nine days to visit the other highlights in and around the city. Unfortunately Stephanie could not join me because she had already spent her free days. This meant I had to go alone, but I found good company with two hosts from CouchSurfing. I visited these places:

  • Mon 15th: arrival at Rome Ciampino Airport
  • Tue 16th: Cerveteri (National Museum, Banditaccia Necropolis)
  • Wed 17th: Tarquinia (National Archaeological Museum, Monterozzi Necropolis)
  • Thu 18th: Tivoli (Villa d’Este, Villa Adriana)
  • Fri 19th: National Etruscan Museum, Pincian Hill, Piazza del Popolo, Basilica of Santa Maria del Popolo, Baths of Caracalla
  • Sat 20th: Via Appia Antica (Catacombs of Callixtus, Catacombs of St. Sebastian, Circus of Maxentius, Tomb of Caecilia Metella)
  • Sun 21st: Basilica of Saint Peter in Chains, Baths of Trajan, Ostia Antica, Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls
  • Mon 22nd: Palazzo Doria Pamphilj, Basilica of Saint Mary in Trastevere, Palazzo Corsini, Botanical Garden, Janiculum
  • Tue 23rd: departure from Rome Ciampino Airport

Cerveteri and Tarquinia had a high priority for me. These small towns northwest of Rome are known for their Etruscan necropolises, which are designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Both towns are close to a railway, so you can go there by train and travel the last kilometers by bus from the railway station. From Rome, Cerveteri can also be reached by bus alone, with a transfer to another bus at Ladispoli. The Lonely Planet travel guide for Rome focuses on Cerveteri and mentions Tarquinia only in passing; I concur.

The Banditaccia Necropolis of Cerveteri is one of a kind. The Greek word necropolis means ‘city of the dead’ and is generally used for elaborate ancient cemeteries. The literal meaning of the word applies so aptly to the Banditaccia necropolis. When you walk through it, it bears a great resemblance to a settlement for the living, with all its streets and tombs which look like houses. It is also quite large. I have to commend how the authorities present the site to visitors, with free guided tours through the necropolis and audiovisual presentations inside select tombs. The same goes for the museum of Cerveteri, the audiovisual presentation there engages visitors with the exhibition so well. If you are short on time, prioritize Cerveteri over Tarquinia.

Street in Banditaccia Necropolis

What distinguishes Cerveteri from Tarquinia is that in the former the structures above the ground are intact but the frescoes inside the tombs were lost, while this is the other way around for the latter. At Tarquinia’s Monterozzi Necropolis the structures of the tombs above the ground were lost and the real attractions are the frescoes in the subterranean parts of the tombs. In many cases these have not been very well preserved, but there are some exceptions. In reality you can’t see much of the tomb’s frescoes however: you cannot enter the tombs for reasons of conservation, you can look at the interior through the glass of a thermal door. This also applies to some of the frescoes which have been transferred to Tarquinia’s museum.

While restricting the access to the tombs is understandable, this reduces the appeal of a visit to the site. Fortunately, for an extra fee you can take a guided tour at the site. The tour takes you to some more remote tombs which are only accessible under the supervision of a guide (but still protected by a thermal door). Without the guided tour, you just get access to a smaller part of the necropolis were the majority of the tombs are located. The guided tour compensated my slight disappointment and made it worthwhile for me. I keep thinking, wouldn’t it be nice if they hired some fresco painters to make replicas of the tombs so you could get a better look at the frescoes? Wouldn’t such a thing attract much more tourists to Tarquinia?

Tivoli is another town close to Rome which deserves a day trip for its two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, Villa d’Este and Villa Adriana. The town lies northeast of Rome and can be reached by bus from the Ponte Mammolo subway station. Villa d’Este is a magnificent villa with an even more impressive garden. However, when you take the bus back to Rome and make another stop further south in Tivoli for the Villa Adriana, you will be even more impressed. The name is deceptive, because it’s not a villa, but a full-blown palace complex occupying more than one square kilometer.

Villa d'Este in Tivoli

Great Baths in Hadrian’s Villa

After my visit to the necropolises of Banditaccia and Monterozzi, I visited the National Etruscan Museum in Rome to provide context for what I saw there. Highly recommended museum with a large collection. After spending a lot of time at the museum I walked in a southern direction and ended the day with the Baths of Caracalla. Even though it’s ruined now, most of its huge walls are still standing, suggesting its former grandiosity. It’s hard to picture that such a fortune was spent on the construction of a bathhouse open to every free male citizen. The emperors Septimus Severus and Caracalla must have considered this form of propaganda to be very important.

Baths of Caracalla

Together with Cerveteri, Ostia Antica was the high point of my trip. I didn’t know the ruins of this ancient Roman city were in fact on par with Pompeii, which I had seen a year earlier. The level of preservation and the size of both ruins are quite similar. It is as if you take a step into classical antiquity itself. My imagination became overwhelmed as I wondered what this city was like in all its former glory. With a guided tour a visit to this site would be even more enjoyable. On the way back to Rome’s center, make sure to visit the beautiful Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls.

Insulae (housing blocks) in Ostia Antica

Basilica of Saint Paul outside the Walls, Rome

On the last day I spent most of my time in art museums. The Galleria Doria-Pamphilij is absolutely recommended with its many famous pieces. So is the Palazzo Corsini, one of the two locations of the Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Antica. I didn’t have time to visit the other location, the Palazzo Barberini.

Like the Palazzo Barberini, there are still plenty of places and attractions I want to see in a future visit to Rome. I couldn’t make a reservation for the Galleria Borghese in time. The Domus Aurea was closed for restorations. I didn’t have time to see the Villa of the Quintilii, the Museum of Roman Civilization, several locations of the National Roman Museum (except for the Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, which is close to Termini) and the National Museum of Oriental Art.

Concerning food, I was slightly disappointed with Rome. I specifically selected good restaurants from TripAdvisor, but it wasn’t as memorable as the food from southern Italy. Roman cuisine also seems to have a greater focus on meat dishes and is apparently not so creative with vegetables. Or maybe I just had bad luck in my choice of restaurants.

I had a good CouchSurfing experience on this trip. It took some perseverance to find hosts, I had to send CouchRequests to almost 150 people before I succeeded. One hosted me for the first five days of my stay, the other for the last five days. Even though they couldn’t keep me company during the day because they had to work, I greatly enjoyed their company and am very grateful for their hospitality.

Are electric cars less polluting than cars using fossil fuels?

Since they were introduced to the mass market a few years ago, I was convinced that EVs (electric vehicles) are much more friendly for the environment than vehicles with conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). When I had a discussion at work last year about the merits of EVs with a colleague, I desired to show him evidence for my claim. I found this 2013 study which compared the lifecycle environmental impact of EVs with ICEVs. The summary of this study reads as follows:

We find that EVs powered by the present European electricity mix offer a 10% to 24% decrease in global warming potential (GWP) relative to conventional diesel or gasoline vehicles assuming lifetimes of 150,000 km. However, EVs exhibit the potential for significant increases in human toxicity, freshwater eco-toxicity, freshwater eutrophication, and metal depletion impacts, largely emanating from the vehicle supply chain. Results are sensitive to assumptions regarding electricity source, use phase energy consumption, vehicle lifetime, and battery replacement schedules. Because production impacts are more significant for EVs than conventional vehicles, assuming a vehicle lifetime of 200,000 km exaggerates the GWP benefits of EVs to 27% to 29% relative to gasoline vehicles or 17% to 20% relative to diesel. An assumption of 100,000 km decreases the benefit of EVs to 9% to 14% with respect to gasoline vehicles and results in impacts indistinguishable from those of a diesel vehicle. Improving the environmental profile of EVs requires engagement around reducing vehicle production supply chain impacts and promoting clean electricity sources in decision making regarding electricity infrastructure.

The following passage is more specific on the impact of the fuel sources used to generate electricity for EVs:

For all scenarios analyzed, the use phase is responsible for the majority of the GWP impact, either directly through fuel combustion or indirectly during electricity production. When powered by average European electricity, EVs are found to reduce GWP by 20% to 24% compared to gasoline ICEVs and by 10% to 14% relative to diesel ICEVs under the base case assumption of a 150,000 km vehicle lifetime. When powered by electricity from natural gas, we estimate LiNCM EVs offer a reduction in GHG emissions of 12% compared to gasoline ICEVs, and break even with diesel ICEVs. EVs powered by coal electricity are expected to cause an increase in GWP of 17% to 27% compared with diesel and gasoline ICEVs.

A conference paper from 2010 reaches a similar conclusion and supplies some illustrative graphs for those of us who are more visually inclined. The 2013 study was given a spin by some news media to write clickbait articles which portray EVs as more destructive to the environment than ICEVs. That obviously does not follow from the conclusions of the study: EVs are better for the environment if powered by the average European electricity mix, but worse if they are powered by electricity generated with coal. This is also the emphasis of Greenpeace. According to other research from the USA, EVs are better for the environment than average ICEVs, even if the dirtiest electricity mix in the USA is used.  There has been some criticism from the the pro-EV camp as well: due to flaws in the 2013 study it overstated the environmental impact of EV production.

I started wondering, what is the average European electricity mix? In the data supplied with the 2013 study the electricity mix data is referenced to be in the final tab of the spreadsheet, but that tab doesn’t exist. Even so, we can use the data from Eurostat for 2012 (figures converted from GWh to TWh):

Oil Coal and lignite Gas Nuclear Renewables Other fuels Total
72 892 615 882 798 35 3.295
2% 27% 19% 27% 24% 1% 100%

Compare this with the data on the electricity mix for the Netherlands in 2012 from Statistics Netherlands. I converted the data from MWh to TWh. Eurostat should have this data for the Netherlands in the same table they use in their data visualization I referenced in the previous paragraph. However, I can’t figure out how I can distill the same figures from that data as they give in the visualization. The data from Statistics Netherlands and Eurostat doesn’t match exactly so I had to modify the categories, that’s why the total in the Dutch data is 96%.

Oil Coal and lignite Gas Nuclear Renewables Other fuels Total
0,03 24 54 4 13 3 103
0% 24% 53% 4% 12% 3% 96%

The data shows that nuclear and renewable energy constitute a much smaller share of the energy sources used in the Netherlands. Gas is a much more important source. On the other hand coal is used slightly less. Gas is cleaner than coal, though not as clean as nuclear power (considering only emissions) or renewables. Not desiring to make further intricate calculations myself, I’d assume that the electricity mix in the Netherlands is clean enough to make use of EVs preferable over ICEVs. Of course it’s imperative that we invest much more in renewable energy, because our current percentage of 12% is an embarrassment.

Even so, producing all those EVs would demand a lot of resources. Also consider that EVs with seats for five persons, like ICEVs currently, will often be used by just a single person to commute to work. We keep the problem of traffic congestion as well. This is inefficient when compared to public transport, which should still be a preferred investment.